Gait Analysis of the Lower Limbs: A Systematic Approach for Design and Analysis of an Orthotic

Jena, Shreeshan (2020) Gait Analysis of the Lower Limbs: A Systematic Approach for Design and Analysis of an Orthotic. PhD thesis.

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Abstract


The application of three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis to study the intricacies of biomechanics associated with the human locomotion has enabled researchers to approach and study the various issues pertaining to gait with much better precision. The present study makes use of a 3D motion analysis system along with statistical and numerical tools to classify human gait and predict the mechanical behaviour of an assistive device that may be used for rehabilitative purposes. The data from motion analysis have been analysed to quantify the extent of significant correlation between subject anthropometric data and the gait parameters. A novel outlook has also been proposed in Chapter 3, wherein various regression models may be used to identify the underlying independent variables responsible for the asymmetry in gait. These models have clinical significance for the identification of the essential causes of asymmetry in the gait of subjects with pathology arising out of similar type of causative events. The motion analysis data has also been used to train an artificial neural network and implemented to identify the gender of individuals utilising the characteristic peaks of the ground reaction forces with an accuracy of more than 99.99 %. Chapter 4 focuses on the design of an orthotic device intended to alleviate the conditions associated with the gait pathologies responsible for lack of heel-strike in individuals. The experimental data were used to define the transient loading conditions of the orthotic, and proper boundary conditions were applied for the finite element analysis (FEA) of the orthotic. The results from this study demonstrate that this orthotic model can withstand the gait loading conditions in the static and transient modes without failing. The reconstruction of a foot bone and tissue model and its assembly has been presented and discussed in Chapter 5. The foot model has been assembled with and without the orthotic model in two separate configurations that are placed upon the ground and shoe sole geometries. The FEA results indicate that the use of the orthotic device reduces the maximum plantar pressure on the foot and has multiple benefits. Chapter 6 deals with the design, fabrication and motion analysis of the spring orthotic device comprising two leaflets to test its effectiveness in transforming kinetic energy to deformation energy and vice-versa in the early and late stance phases of gait. The gait trials for this study have been conducted under the barefoot, shod and orthotic modes wherein the significant differences in the resulting gait patterns between the barefoot-orthotic and the shod-orthotic trials were obtained. The trials with orthotic present a longer stance phase and a smaller mean radii of curvature for the rollover shapes. The orthotic demonstrates power absorption and drop of peak forces and moments in major characteristic peaks of the gait cycle, the reduced radii of curvature of the rollover shape suggest a decrease in stability during the early stance. Thus the proposed orthotic device presents satisfactory results and indicates potential application in rehabilitation healthcare.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:gait; regression; rollover; FEA; orthotic; rehabilitation
Subjects:Engineering and Technology > Biomedical Engineering
Divisions: Engineering and Technology > Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering
ID Code:10121
Deposited By:Mr. Sanat Kumar Behera
Deposited On:11 Jun 2020 15:58
Last Modified:11 Jun 2020 15:58
Supervisor(s):Arunachalam, Thirugnanam and Panda, Subrata Kumar

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