Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Issues in Social Marketing

Beriha, Gouri Shankar (2012) Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Issues in Social Marketing. PhD thesis.



Social marketing has been contributing historically for a better application of public policy, health and safety, environment, education and human rights. Specifically, four major areas that social marketing efforts have focused over the years are health promotion,injurprevention,environmental protection, and community mobilization. Social marketing, at an industrial organization, emphasizes exchange of ideas between the target audience (i.e. the employees) and the marketer (i.e. the employer). This exchange requires that the employees be persuaded to give up the unsafe behaviors that they are accustomed to, to gain an enhanced level of safety with a greater likelihood of preventing injuries in
the workplace. In an organizational context, the internal users are treated as customers and marketing inside the organization is an essential part of delivering value to the organization, and ultimately to the end customer. Therefore, effective management strategies are sought to develop the concept of internal marketing with a view to satisfy the employees and in turn, motivate them to do good work
and produce a better product or service. The success of any business enterprise largely depends on its manpower with regard to their professional skill level, positive attitude, job satisfaction, and involvement in quality improvement activities. The important aspect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the concern for safety and sound health of the workforce, so that employees feel secured and motivated. The concern becomes manifold when the workforce is exposed to menial tasks and occupational risk situations. To make a safe and conducive environment, an organization must build a solid foundation with a clear vision of the future and specific means by which it will achieve the safety mission of the organization. Safety, health and
environment systems needs a continual and systematically managed efforts in order to achieve sustainable growth. Presently, many industries are focusing attention on occupational health and safety (OHS) that may help to achieve competitive advantage. This research is concerned with the study of OHS issues in the context of injury prevention social marketing. A detailed study on workplace environment and safety climate makes the implementation of various social marketing principles easier. This may also be useful for the purpose of policy formulation on improving OHS in Indian industries. Three industrial sectors such as construction (Type 1), refractory (Type 2) and steel (Type 3) are considered in this study. These industries are generally viewed as hazardous due to usage of heavy
equipment, unsafe and primitive tools, injurious materials and dust produced during operation. The study covers such organizations where size in manpower and investment varies, both organized and unorganized workforce exists, both
public and private enterprises exist, and the level of sophistication of tools, methods, and work environment in terms of safety is poor. A study on risk perceptions and understanding of OHS has been conducted in three industrial sectors. Thirty four items are included in the questionnaire through review of related literature and discussion with a focus group. The items are framed to suit the local work practices and culture covering various aspects of OHS. Two hundred eighty eight (or 288) useful responses were tested to examine the validity and reliability of the scale to ensure a quantitative and statistically provenidentification of the responses. The test for quantitative variables was conducted by factor analysis on responses using the principal component method followed by varimax rotation to ensure that the variables are important and suitable for the model using SPSS 16.0. Finally, identified factors were again analyzed using discriminant analysis to highlight
statistical difference among practices existing in three sectors. The pattern of influence of input parameters on outputs such as injury level and material damage is difficult to establish, possibly due to existence of some nonlinear relationship among them. Therefore, an artificial neural network (ANN) is adopted to carry out sensitivity analysis and important deficient items have been
identified. A comparative evaluation on deficient items among three major types of Indian industries has been made. Quality function deployment (QFD) has been used to develop the system design requirements considering the deficient safety items as voice of customers. The interrelation among the system design requirements is represented in a digraph using Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach. A predictive methodology for forecasting various types of
injuries has been proposed using fuzzy inference system. As fuzzy inference system can be used with little mathematical knowledge and needs only expert knowledge, it can be easily implemented in the field to predict injury types.
Further, fuzzy inference system can deal effectively in imprecise and uncertain situations. In order to transfer best practices among various organizations, a benchmarking study has been carried out using data envelopment analysis
(DEA). The study finally provides some useful guidelines for the managers for improving safety performance in selected Indian industrial settings.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Social marketing; Occupational health and safety (OHS); Corporate social responsibility (CSR); Health promotion; Injury prevention; Environmental protection; Principal component method; Discriminant analysis; Artificial neural network approach (ANN); Quality function deployment (QFD); Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM); Fuzzy inference system; Data envelopment analysis (DEA).
Subjects:Humanities & Social Sciences > Sociology
Divisions: Social Sciences > Department of Humanities & Social Sciences
ID Code:4475
Deposited By:Hemanta Biswal
Deposited On:08 May 2013 14:18
Last Modified:08 May 2013 14:18
Supervisor(s):Patnaik, B and Mahapatra, S S

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