Earthquake resistant design of low-rise open ground storey framed building

Patel, Snehash (2012) Earthquake resistant design of low-rise open ground storey framed building. MTech thesis.



Presence of infill walls in the frames alters the behaviour of the building under lateral loads. However, it is common industry practice to ignore the stiffness of infill wall for analysis of framed building. Engineers believe that analysis without considering infill stiffness leads to a conservative design. But this may not be always true, especially for vertically irregular buildings with discontinuous infill walls. Hence, the modelling of infill walls in the seismic analysis of framed buildings is imperative. Indian Standard IS 1893: 2002 allows analysis of open ground storey buildings without considering infill stiffness but with a multiplication factor 2.5 in compensation for the stiffness discontinuity. As per the code the columns and beams of the open ground storey are to be designed for 2.5 times the storey shears and moments calculated under seismic loads of bare frames (i.e., without considering the infill stiffness). However, as experienced by the engineers at design offices, the multiplication factor of 2.5 is not realistic for low rise buildings. This calls for an assessment and review of the code recommended multiplication factor for low rise open ground storey buildings. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is defined as to check the applicability of the multiplication factor of 2.5 and to study the effect of infill strength and stiffness in the seismic analysis of low rise open ground storey building.
Infill walls can be modelled in commercial software using two-dimensional area element with appropriate material properties for linear elastic analysis. But this type of modelling may not work for non-linear analysis since the non-linear material properties for a two-dimensional orthotropic element is not very well understood. Seismic evaluation of an existing reinforced concrete (RC) framed building would invariably require a non-linear analysis. Published literature in this area recommends a linear diagonal strut approach to model infill wall for both linear (Equivalent Static Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis) and nonlinear analyses (Pushover Analysis and Time History Analysis).
An existing RC framed building (G+3) with open ground storey located in Seismic Zone-V is considered for this study. This building is analyzed for two different cases: (a) considering both infill mass and infill stiffness and (b) considering infill mass but without considering infill stiffness. Two separate models were generated using commercial software SAP2000. Infill weights were modelled through applying static dead load and corresponding masses considered from this dead load for dynamic analyses. Infill stiffness was modelled using a diagonal strut approach. Two different support conditions, namely fixed end support condition and pinned end support condition, are considered to check the effect of support conditions in the multiplication factors. Linear and non-linear analyses were carried out for the models and the results were compared.
The analysis results show that a factor of 2.5 is too high to be multiplied to the beam and column forces of the ground storey of low-rise open ground storey buildings. This study conclude that the problem of open ground storey buildings cannot be identified properly through elastic analysis as the stiffness of open ground storey building and a similar bare-frame building are almost same. Nonlinear analysis reveals that open ground storey building fails through a ground storey mechanism at a comparatively low base shear and displacement and the mode of failure is found to be brittle. Linear and nonlinear analyses show that support condition influences the response considerably and can be an important parameter to decide the force amplification factor.

Item Type:Thesis (MTech)
Uncontrolled Keywords:infill walls, diagonal strut, open ground storey, equivalent static analysis, response spectrum analysis, pushover analysis, low rise building
Subjects:Engineering and Technology > Civil Engineering > Earthquake Engineering
Engineering and Technology > Civil Engineering > Structural Engineering
Divisions: Engineering and Technology > Department of Civil Engineering
ID Code:3910
Deposited On:08 Jun 2012 10:36
Last Modified:08 Jun 2012 10:36
Supervisor(s):Sarkar, P

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