Heat treatment of S.G cast iron and its effects

Shekhar, Sudhanshu and Jaiswal, Amit (2008) Heat treatment of S.G cast iron and its effects. BTech thesis.



S.G Cast iron is defined as a high carbon containing, iron based alloy in which the graphite is present in compact, spherical shapes rather than in the shape of flakes, the latter being typical of gray cast iron . As nodular or spheroidal graphite cast iron, sometimes referred to as ductile iron,constitutes a family of cast irons in which the graphite is present in a nodular or spheroidal form.The graphite nodules are small and constitute only small areas of weakness in a steel-like matrix. Because of this the mechanical properties of ductile irons related directly to the strength and ductility of the matrix present—as is the case of steels.One reason for the phenomenal growth in the use of Ductile Iron castings is the high ratio of performance to cost that they offer the designer and end user. This high value results from many factors, one of which is the control of microstructure and properties that can be achieved in the ascast condition, enabling a high percentage of ferritic and pearlitic structure.Heat treatment is a valuable and versatile tool for extending both the consistency and range of properties of Ductile Iron castings beyond the limits of those produced in the as-cast condition. Thus, to fully utilize the potential of Ductile Iron castings, the designer should be aware of the wide range of heat treatments available for Ductile Iron, and its response to these heat treatments.The most important heat treatments and their purposes are:Stress relieving - a low-temperature treatment, to reduce or relieve internal stresses remaining after casting Annealing - to improve ductility and toughness, to reduce hardness and to remove carbides Normalizing - to improve strength with some ductility Hardening and tempering - to increase hardness or to give improved strength and higher proof stress ratio Austempering - to yield bainitic structures of high strength, with significant ductility and good wear resistance Surface hardening - by induction, flame,or laser to produce a local wearresistant hard surface1 Although Ductile Iron and steel are superficially similar metallurgically, the high carbon and silicon levels in Ductile Iron result in important differences in their response to heat treatment. The higher carbon levels in Ductile Iron increase hardenability, permitting heavier sections to be heat treated with lower requirements for expensive alloying or severe quenching media.These higher carbon levels can also cause quench cracking due to the formation of higher carbon martensite,and/or the retention of metastable austenite. These undesirable phenomena make the control of composition, austenitizing temperature and quenching conditions more critical in Ductile Iron. Silicon also exerts a strong influence on the response of Ductile Iron to heat treatment. The higher the silicon content, the lower the solubility of carbon in austenite and the more readily carbon is precipitated as graphite during slow cooling to produce a ferritic matrix. Although remaining unchanged in shape, the graphite spheroids in Ductile Iron play a critical role in heat treatment, acting as both a source and sink for carbon. When heated into the austenite temperature range, carbon readily diffuses from the spheroids to saturate the austenite matrix.On slow cooling the carbon returns to the graphite "sinks",reducing the carbon content of the austenite. This availability of excess carbon and the ability to transfer it between the matrix and the nodules makes Ductile Iron easier to heat treat and increases the range of properties that can be obtained by heat treatment.Austempered Ductile Irons (ADI) are the most recently developed materials of the DI family. By adapting the austempering treatment initially introduced for steels to DI, it has been shown that the resulting
metallurgical structures provide properties that favorably compare to those of steel while taking advantage of a near-net-shape manufacturing process.

Item Type:Thesis (BTech)
Uncontrolled Keywords:HEAT TREATMENT OF S.G IRON
Subjects:Engineering and Technology > Metallurgical and Materials Science > Cast Iron
Divisions: Engineering and Technology > Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
ID Code:4338
Deposited By:Hemanta Biswal
Deposited On:10 Jul 2012 17:10
Last Modified:10 Jul 2012 17:10
Supervisor(s):Sen, S

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