Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Ethanol Fueled HCCI Engine

Bendu, Harisankar (2017) Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Ethanol Fueled HCCI Engine. PhD thesis.

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Presently, the research on the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines has gained importance in the field of automotive power applications due to its superior efficiency and low emissions compared to the conventional internal combustion (IC) engines. In principle, the HCCI uses premixed lean homogeneous charge that auto-ignites volumetrically throughout the cylinder. The homogeneous mixture preparation is the main key to achieve high fuel economy and low exhaust emissions from the HCCI engines. In the recent past, different techniques to prepare homogeneous mixture have been explored. The major problem associated with the HCCI is to control the auto-ignition over wide range of engine operating conditions. The control strategies for the HCCI engines were also explored. This dissertation investigates the utilization of ethanol, a potential major contributor to the fuel economy of the future. Port fuel injection (PFI) strategy was used to prepare the homogeneous mixture external to the engine cylinder in a constant speed, single cylinder, four stroke air cooled engine which was operated on HCCI mode. Seven modules of work have been proposed and carried out in this research work to establish the results of using ethanol as a potential fuel in the HCCI engine. Ethanol has a low Cetane number and thus it cannot be auto-ignited easily. Therefore, intake air preheating was used to achieve auto-ignition temperatures.
In the first module of work, the ethanol fueled HCCI engine was thermodynamically analysed to determine the operating domain. The minimum intake air temperature requirement to achieve auto-ignition and stable HCCI combustion was found to be 130 °C. Whereas, the knock limit of the engine limited the maximum intake air temperature of 170 °C. Therefore, the intake air temperature range was fixed between 130-170 °C for the ethanol fueled HCCI operation.
In the second module of work, experiments were conducted with the variation of intake air temperature from 130-170 °C at a regular interval of 10 °C. It was found that, the increase in the intake air temperature advanced the combustion phase and decreased the exhaust gas temperature. At 170 °C, the maximum combustion efficiency and thermal efficiency were found to be 98.2% and 43% respectively. The NO emission and smoke emissionswere found to be below 11 ppm and 0.1% respectively throughout this study. From these results of high efficiency and low emissions from the HCCI engine, the following were determined using TOPSIS method. They are (i) choosing the best operating condition, and (ii) which input parameter has the greater influence on the HCCI output.
In the third module of work, TOPSIS - a multi-criteria decision making technique was used to evaluate the optimum operating conditions. The optimal HCCI operating condition was found at 70% load and 170 °C charge temperature. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test results revealed that, the charge temperature would be the most significant parameter followed by the engine load. The percentage contribution of charge temperature and load were63.04% and 27.89% respectively.
In the fourth module of work, the GRNN algorithm was used to predict the output parameters of the HCCI engine. The network was trained, validated, and tested with the experimental data sets. Initially, the network was trained with the 60% of the experimental data sets. Further, the validation and testing of the network was done with each 20% data sets. The validation results predicted that, the output parameters those lie within 2% error. The results also showed that, the GRNN models would be advantageous for network simplicity and require less sparse data. The developed new tool efficiently predicted the relation between the input and output parameters.
In the fifth module of work, the EGR was used to control the HCCI combustion. An optimum of 5% EGR was found to be optimum, further increase in the EGR caused increase in the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. The maximum brake thermal efficiency of 45% was found for 170 °C charge temperature at 80% engine load. The NO emission and smoke emission were found to be below 10 ppm and 0.61% respectively.
In the sixth module of work, a hybrid GRNN-PSO model was developed to optimize the ethanol-fueled HCCI engine based on the output performance and emission parameters. The GRNN network interpretive of the probability estimate such that it can predict the performance and emission parameters of HCCI engine within the range of input parameters. Since GRNN cannot optimize the solution, and hence swarm based adaptive mechanism was hybridized. A new fitness function was developed by considering the six engine output parameters. For the developed fitness function, constrained optimization criteria were implemented in four cases. The optimum HCCI engine operating conditions for the general criteria were found to be 170 °C charge temperature, 72% engine load, and 4% EGR. This model consumed about 60-75 ms for the HCCI engine optimization. In the last module of work, an external fuel vaporizer was used to prepare the ethanol fuel vapour and admitted into the HCCI engine. The maximum brake thermal efficiency of 46% was found for 170 °C charge temperature at 80% engine load. The NO emission and smoke emission were found to be below 5 ppm and 0.45% respectively.
Overall, it is concluded that, the HCCI combustion of sole ethanol fuel is possible with the charge heating only. The high load limit of HCCI can be extended with ethanol fuel. High thermal efficiency and low emissions were possible with ethanol fueled HCCI to meet the current demand.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:HCCI; Ethanol; performance; combustion; emission; TOPSIS; GRNN; PSO
Subjects:Engineering and Technology > Mechanical Engineering > Automobile Engineering
Divisions: Engineering and Technology > Department of Mechanical Engineering
ID Code:8684
Deposited By:Mr. Kshirod Das
Deposited On:06 Oct 2017 16:13
Last Modified:06 Oct 2017 16:13
Supervisor(s):Murugan, S

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